In Yagman v. Wunderlich, et al., Plaintiff, Stephen Yagman, a well-known civil rights attorney, representing himself, sued the City based on a $1,000 fine he received for parking in a disabled spot without properly displaying a DMV-issued placard. He claimed this fine was excessive and filed suit in federal court asserting nine constitutional claims under 42 U.S.C. section 1983 and one claim under RICO. He named as Defendants City Council Members, the City Manager, the Director of Finance, the City Treasurer and various members of the City’s Traffic and Parking Commission. He originally included class allegations in his complaint; however, they were dismissed with the first motion to dismiss. The District Court granted the motion to dismiss the first amended complaint without leave to amend filed by Bobbie Kraus. Yagman appealed and the Ninth Circuit issued a memorandum opinion upholding the judgment in Defendants’ favor.